A machining is a manufacturing process comprising a set of parts forming operations by material removal, either by chip removal or abrasion.
It is made from semi-finished products such as billets, blooms or other preshaped parts by other processes such as casting or forging. The products obtained may be end or semifinished requiring further operations.
Machining by chip removal
The material is torn or cut with a tool resulting in wasteful or chip. The tool consists generally of one or more cutting edges or blades that separate chip piece in each pass. And finishing (removal of material very little precision final process), in the chip removal machining processes grinding (intermediate process removing a lot of material inaccurately) are given. However, it has a physical limitation: You can not remove all the material you want because there comes a time when efforts to tighten the tool against the workpiece is so light that penetrates the tool does not come to remove chips.
Abrasion material removal is wearing the piece in small amounts, dislodging material particles, in many cases, incandescent. This process is performed by the action of a feature tool, the abrasive wheel. In this case, the (molar) tool is formed by particles of very hard abrasive material bonded by a binder. This way of removing material scratching the surface of the workpiece, requires less force to remove material by pressing the tool against the piece, allowing passes can give much thinner. The accuracy that can be obtained by abrasion and surface finish can be very good but the production times are very long.
In the machining process for removing material involves two movements, the cutting motion, by which the tool cuts the material, and the forward movement, whereby the tool is new material for cutting. Each of these two movements you can have the part or the tool according to the machining.
Manual labor and work done with machine tool.
It is performed by a person with only hand tools: saw, file, chisel, chisel; in such cases the operator machines the workpiece using any of these tools, using its expertise and strength.
Machining machine tool.
The machining is done by a machine tool, manual, semiautomatic or automatic, but the effort to machining is performed by a mechanical equipment, engines and mechanisms. The classic machining machine tools are:
* Drill: The piece is fixed on the table of the drill tool, called drill performs motion rotary cutting and linear advancement, making the machining of a hole or bore theoretically the same diameter as the drill and the desired depth .
* Shapers: this machine tool performs machining with a blade mounted on the tool holder of the ram, which performs a linear cutting movement on a fixed part the table, which is moving perpendicular to the cutting motion forward.
* Slotting: Material machine starts linearly from inside a hole. The cutting movement is effected by the tool and the feed table where the workpiece is mounted.
* Planer: larger than the shaper has a sliding table on which the workpiece is fixed and performs the sliding longitudinally cutting motion, the blade mounted on a bridge on the table is moved transversely in the forward movement.
* Broaching: machine in which the cutting movement is performed by a progressive multi-edged herramientabrocha ranging starting material.